are looking for a full sized electric scooter which
enjoys all the freedoms of a bicycle then it must meet
several criteria. In order to quality as a power-assisted
bicycle the scooter must be equipped with operational
pedals. The motor must have a continuous power of no
more than 500 Watts. Finally the bike must be limited
to a top speed of 32 km/h. All of our MOTORINO scooters
meet all of Transport Canada’s criteria and are
qualified as power assisted bicycles.
Most of electric scooter models currently on the market
are manufactured in China since gas motorcycles have
been banned in big Chinese cities since 1998. The construction
of electric scooters has evolved tremendously during
the last six years. Their power rate is between 350
and 500 watts with driving distances of 30 to 50 km.
Some models are equipped or have an option for extra
battery which can extend their range by 30 – 50%.
Almost all current scooters use a brushless hub motor.
These hub motors, manufactured for the Asian domestic
market, are more durable than high rpm geared drive
systems, but they are not powerful enough to handle
hills and their acceleration is slow.
As of March 2007 GREENWIT
TECHNOLOGIES Inc introduced to the North
American Market the first electric scooter with side
mounted high speed motor with a DYNATECH™ torque
converter. The DYNATECH™ torque converter, built
in to MOTORINO HTh models provides higher torque than
a standard hub motor with the same rating. However geared
motors require more maintenance and changing the oil.
There is also some friction involved in the gear box
reducing their efficiency and reliability.
After 2 years of design work in the beginning of 2008
TECHNOLOGIES Inc released a new driving system
for their MOTORINO™ electric scooters that revolutionized
their performance. They introduced new motors and controllers
that improve acceleration, climbing ability, efficiency
and durability of the scooters. The new motors that
come in 500 and 750 watts continuous power respectively
for the Canadian and US market; they have a different
coil pattern and more and wider magnets. This improves
their efficiency and increases their torque. They have
heavy duty bearings with negligible internal friction
and are guaranteed for two years. The new motors work
in conjunction with another GREENWIT
TECHNOLOGIES Inc invention: the CCT (Continuous
Current and Torque) controller. The function of the
CCT is similar to that of a transmission in a regular
drive train. Three electronic "gears" each
increase the available torque by 25% while maintaining
the same current consumption. This driving technology
provides acceleration comperable to gas scooters and
in many cases outperforms them. They also have better
torque than geared motors with the same rating. With
the CCT controller each gear presets a maximum speed
for the e-bike. According to the grade of the hill,
it converts the available power into torque instead
of attempting to maintain the level-ground speed. The
controller provides power at different frequencies for
each gear. To increase torque it provides impulses to
the rotor for longer periods at the same current instead
of increasing the current over a short period of time,
as in a single speed motor. At the same time the CCT
driving system provides very powerful regenerative brake
which almost eliminates the need for mechanical brakes.
Their energy recovery is higher than standard type brushless
motor, due mostly to the larger magnets.
In order to increase the torque of standard brushless
motors some manufacturers are using controllers which
pump a high current in the motor. Although increasing
current will increase torque, it is a poor solution
because higher current will drain the battery much more
quickly and reduce motor efficiency. The CCT controller
on the contrary is using continuous current for each
gear and increases/decreases the torque when it is necessary
without varying the current.
Most of the existing electric scooters on the market
are equipped with brushless motors but there are still
some models with brushed ones. The brushless motor has
a huge advantage especially for full size electric scooters.
A 250W brushless motor could provide torque equivalent
to a 500 – 600W brushed motor while consuming
half the power.
Another criteria affecting the durability, performance,
safety and maintenance is the structure of the electric
scooter. Since 2005 GREENWIT
TECHNOLOGIES Inc has built their scooter
type electric bikes on heavy duty motorcycle frames
and used motorcycle brakes. The electric scooters have
3.5X10” tires, improving their traction and stability
in wet conditions. Tubeless tires are another big advantage.
By carrying a tubeless tire repair kit you don’t
need to remove the wheel from the bike to fix a flat
which is the biggest hassle of using electric bikes.
Features affecting overall performance and
quality of the electric scooters
The criteria affecting your riding distance
in descending order are: Battery capacity, current consumption,
motor type (brushless or brushed), scooter weight, tire
2. Climbing capability and acceleration:
The criteria affecting the electric scooter torque,
acceleration and respectively its climbing capability
are: motor type*, motor power, controller, battery capacity,
Motor - There is a high current going
through the brushes in the brushed motors which causes
arcs. Ashes are deposited inside the motor. That is
why a brushed motor has to be disassembled once in a
while and cleaned. A brushless motor does not require
any maintenance and its life is limited by the life
of the two bearings, supporting the drum with the magnets.
Brakes – The more powerful your
regenerative brakes are, the longer your brake pads
Tires – Tubeless tires can be
fixed on spot and will save you the hassle of transporting
the bike when you have flat.
4. Durability and safety:
Frame – Scooters built on heavy-duty
motorcycle-grade frames provide a smoother ride, and
are safer in a collision. You will recognize a motorcycle
frame if it has 3.5X10” tires
Tires – 3.5X10” tubeless
tires have better traction and are more stable on different
road or weather conditions
Safety – Make sure the bike is
equipped with turn signals, brake lights, tail light,
high/low beam lights, reflectors, horn, alarm, rain
cover case, lockable steering wheel
*When the motor is properly designed
a lower power rated motor can be more powerful than
a higher rated one